The relationship between behavioral psychology and human activities
Behavior is a person’s reaction to the impact of the external environment, as well as motivated conscious actions that express the person’s attitude to people, society and the world as a whole. A person’s behavior can be benevolent or aggressive, appropriate or criminal. Behavior can comply with ethical and moral standards, or be deviant, that is, strongly deviate from generally accepted norms in society.
The psychology of human behavior depends on his character, temperament and personality type. And of course from the external environment, which affects a person. Psychologists and sociologists are working on the question of what human behavior depends on. What has a greater impact, genetics or the environment? The science that deals with research in this area is called sociobiology or human ethology. At the moment, there is no direct evidence of the dependence of behavior on human genetics. In search of an answer, F. Galton launched a study of the human genotype and chromosomes. This area of science is called behavior genetics.
Man is an active being. Activity can be varied. It is expressed in human activity.
Activity – a type of activity aimed at cognition and creative transformation of the world, interaction with the outside world. In the process of activity, a person achieves the goals that have arisen as a result of the appearance of certain desires and motives.
There is a direct connection between behavioral psychology and human activity. As we see from the definitions of “behavior” and “activity”, the active activity of a person and his life position depend on the psychology, character and behavior of a person.
Human behavior is not always focused, it is often spontaneous. It is influenced by emotions and feelings. Activities always have a specific goal, aimed at creating a certain product. Activities are always organized, planned and systematic.
The main characteristics of the activity are the motive that determines why it is necessary to carry out the activity; the goal of the activity is what the person wants to get as a result; subject and means – that with which a person will have to work and by what means and ways he is going to achieve a certain goal.
As a result of activity, changes occur in the outside world or with the person himself. If a person’s activity is aimed at self-development, then as a result he will change, gain new knowledge, skills and develop new character traits, abilities, talents. This will undoubtedly affect the psychology of human behavior.
The basis of the typology of A. Adler is a light interconnection of the psychology of behavior and human activity. He identifies these types of people:
Control type. Such people are characterized by an active lifestyle, it seems to them that the world was created in order to receive from it benefits and benefits at the lowest cost. Their behavior is mostly assertive, aggressive and often immoral. Many people of this type become “thieves in law”, organizers of mafia structures. This also includes politicians.
Taker type. These are inactive people who take from life everything that comes easy. Usually their behavior is distinguished by its parasitism. For example, they sit on the neck of someone or some organization and take from it everything that it can give. At the same time, without making any effort. Their behavior is usually nonchalant, relaxed, and inactive.
Avoiding type. Such people do not strive for success. But basically they try to avoid any problems and failures. They behave very carefully, do not make their own decisions, avoid responsibility. Often engaged in socially useless activities.
Socially useful type. Such people show true concern for others, are interested in communicating with them. They treat people with kindness and an open soul. Such people do not have to help others financially or do some kind of service, they just make a feasible contribution to the common work. These are mature people who know how to solve problems, realize their competence, place in life and society.
Such people behave courageously, positively and responsibly.
Adler believes that every person solves three global problems in life: work, friendship and love. The psychology of behavior and human activity determines how much a person is able to solve these issues.
In practice, the most commonly used typology is Haymans – La Senna, which identifies 8 types of human character depending on the psychology of behavior and human activity. His typology was based on such components: activity, emotionality and secondary nature. Emotionality is how much a person reacts to external circumstances. Activity is the need for action. Some people are constantly acting, while others are only pondering, dreaming of how to do something. Primary or secondary nature – how long and strongly experienced impressions